The age of culture – why, what, and how?



  1. Arnold, M. (1955). Culture and Anarchy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 47-48.
  2. 2. Benedict, R. (1963). Patterns of Culture. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, p. 36 (italics mine).
  3. Kroeber, A., Kluckhohn, C. (1963). Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. New York: Vintage Books.
  4. Masini, E. B. The Futures of Culture (1991). Volume I: Meeting of the Working Group on the Futures of Culture, 9-10 January, 1990. Paris: UNESCO, p. 6.
  5. 5. Powys, J. C. (1929). The Meaning of Culture. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., p. 77.
  6. Schafer, D. Paul (2008). Revolution or Renaissance: Making the Transition from an Economic Age to a Cultural Age. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. See Part I, Chapters 1 to 4, pages 9 to 135 for a detailed account of the origins, evolution, and mechanics of the economic age, as well as an objective assessment of the basic strengths and shortcomings of the economic age.
  7. Schafer, D. Paul (1998). Culture: Beacon of the Future. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. See page 13 to 82 for an examination of the many different perceptions and definitions of culture that have been advanced throughout history, from the earlier and narrower artistic, humanistic, historical, and psychological ones to the more recent and all-encompassing anthropological, sociological, ecological, and biological ones. When these perceptions and definitions are examined in depth and in totality, there is very little in the world that is not concerned with or connected to culture and cultures, especially the anthropological or holistic perception and definition of culture and cultures as wholes or total ways of life.
  8. Soyinka, W. (1992). ‘Culture, Memory, and Development,” International Conference on Culture and Development in Africa, 2-3, April, 1992. Washington: The World Bank, p. 21.
  9. Tylor, E. B. (1958). The Origins of Culture. New York and London: Harper Torchbooks, p. 1 (italics mine).
  10. UNESCO. (1997). A Practical Guide to the World Decade for Cultural Development 1988-1997. Paris: UNESCO, p. 16 (italics mine).
  11. Weintraub, K. J. (1966). Visons of Culture: Voltaire, Guizot, Burckhardt, Lamprecht, Huizinga, Ortega y Gasset. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 216.

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